An Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) is comprised of the following main components:
Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) – A isolated virtual network which is logically organised within the AWS cloud.
Subnet – A portion of a VPC’s IP address range wher groups of isolated resources can be placed.
Internet Gateway / Egress only Internet Gateway – The Amazon VPC side of a connection to the public Internet for both IPv4 and IPv6 protocols.
Router – A router is used to connect subnets within a VPC and to direct traffic between virtual private gateways, Internet gateways, subnets and NAT Gateways.
Peering Connection – A direction connection between two VPCs.
VPC Endpoints – A private connection to public facing AWS Services.
NAT Instance – Allows Internet access for EC2 instances which are located within a private subnet and are managed by an end user.
NAT Gateway – Enables Internet access for EC2 instances which are located within a private subnet and are managed by AWS.
Virtual Private Gateway – The Amazon VPC side of a Virtual Private Network connection.
Customer Gateway – The customer side of a VPN connection.
AWS Direct Connect – A high bandwith, high speed, private network connection from an AWS customer to AWS/
Security Group – An instance-level firewall.
Network ACL (NACL) – A subnet level firewall.